یکشنبه , ۱۶ بهمن ۱۴۰۱
دکتر محمدرضا سرگلزایی

پوپولیسم – دکتر محمدرضا سرگلزایی

پوپولیسم – دکتر محمدرضا سرگلزایی

“پوپولیسم” را به اشکال مختلف تعریف کرده اند.من اگر بخواهم پوپولیسم را در یک عبارت کوتاه بیان کنم آن را نظام فکری ای می دانم که بر فضیلت بی سوادی پای می فشارد!
پوپولیست ها هم عوام زده اند، هم عوام فریب! آن ها به زبان توده های کم سواد سخن می گویند و توده های کم سواد را در مقابل طبقه ی باسواد و نخبه تهییج و تحریک می کنند.
پوپولیسم همان طور از ریشه ی لغوی اش (Popular) برمی آید،ادّعای “مردمی” بودن دارد ولی کدام مردم؟ مردمی که نگاهی غیرکارشناسانه، بدوی، روزمرّه و عُرفی-عادتی- عاطفی به همه چیز دارند! گرچه پوپولیسم در عرصه ی سیاست نمودهای وسیعی دارد ولی من می خواهم در این یادداشت از نمودهای غیرسیاسی پوپولیسم سخن بگویم.هرکدام از ما به درجاتی دچار پوپولیسم هستیم. هر وقت که نظر عوامانه را به نظر کارشناسی و تخصّصی ترجیح می دهیم یک پوپولیست هستیم!

نمونه هایی از گزاره های پوپولیستی را که در محاورات روزمرّه ی ما شنیده می شوند ذکر می کنم:

“مگر پدربزرگ ها و مادربزرگ های ما مشاوره ی پیش از ازدواج می رفتند که سال های سال به خوبی و خوشی کنار هم زندگی می کردند؟!”
این داروهای شیمیایی یک جا را درست می کنند،صدجا را خراب می کنند،داروهای گیاهی طبیعی اند و به بدن صدمه نمی زنند!”
“جلوگیری از بارداری دخالت در کار خداست،روزی دست خداست،خدایی که دندان دهد نان دهد!”
این همه آدم حتمأ یک چیزی می فهمند که دارند این کار را می کنند! مگر می شود این همه آدم اشتباه کنند؟!”

***

“پوپولیسم” چگونه “بازتولید” می شود

دو جریان-گرچه به ظاهر ضد هم-تقویت کننده‌ی پوپولیسم هستند. یکی جریانی که با باورهای عوامانه کاسبی می کنند. برای مثال مدّتی پیش پای سخنرانی کسی نشستم که ادّعا می کرد با “طب اسلامی” همه ی بیماری ها را درمان می کند. این فرد تمام پیشرفت های پزشکی از سی تی اسکن و آنژیوگرافی گرفته تا رادیولوژی و شیمی درمانی را توطئه ی یهود برای بیمار کردن مسلمانان می دانست و ادّعا می کرد در “مطب” خود تمام بیماری ها از اسکیزوفرنی گرفته تا لوکمی را از طریق داروهای گیاهی و رژیم غذایی و حجامت درمان می کند! بدیهی است که این گفتمان چیزی جز یک کاسبکاری عوام فریبانه نیست.امّا از آن طرف متخصّصان و نخبگانی که حاضر نیستند از “برج عاج” فرود آیند و برای مخاطب غیرمتخصّص حرف بزنند و بنویسند هم تقویت کننده ی پوپولیسم هستند.گاهی که با برخی همکاران پزشک،روانپزشک یا روانشناسم در محافل اجتماعی و حتّی مهمانی ها می نشینم می‌بینم که آن ها آن قدر حتّی در محاورات روزمرّه از اصطلاحات تخصّصی (چه به جا و چه نا به جا!) استفاده می کنند که ارتباط شان با بخش بزرگی از بدنه ی اجتماع قطع می شود.این گروه از نخبگان برج عاج نشین هم ناخواسته آب به آسیاب پوپولیست های کاسبکار می ریزند.
رسالت روشنفکر این است که با توده ی مردم صحبت کند،با زبانی که برای آن ها قابل فهم باشد و در عین حال سخت مراقبت کند که دچار عوام زدگی و عوام فریبی نشود. این کار، کار آسانی نیست و نیاز به تمرین و مراقبت دارد. کاری است شبیه بندبازی!
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دست نگهدارید این کشتی دارد غرق میشود! – دکتر محمدرضا سرگلزایی

دست نگهدارید این کشتی دارد غرق میشود! – دکتر محمدرضا سرگلزایی فیلم سینمایی «تایتانیک» را …

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